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Are chicken and fish considered meat and not allowed with dairy?

by Rabbi Shlomo Chein


Library » Mitzvot » Kosher » Meat and Dairy | Subscribe | What is RSS?


The Short Answer:

Neither chicken nor fish meet the Torah's criteria for meat (in this context). Chicken1, however, is rabbinically considered meat and forbidden with dairy. 

The Askmoses Answer:

The Torah says2 "do not cook a kid in its mother's milk".

The oral tradition3 tells us that (in the Torah's classic way of conveying many messages through limited words) the Torah is teaching us many laws through this enigmatic verse. For example: "kid in its mother's milk" is not limited to a young animal in its biological mother's milk, rather the Torah is describing the general definition of meat for this law. One of the criteria for "meat" in this context is that its mother gives milk.

since people consider chicken to be a form of meat, it is now in the category of meat and may not be eaten with dairy.
This then does not include poultry or fish4. Thus technically speaking, there is no Biblical prohibition against eating chicken or fish with dairy. 

However, this poses a problem: many people did, and continue to, consider chicken a form of meat. It was sold together in the market, and is sold together in butcher shops and at the deli counter of your local supermarket etc. It was/is thus easy to make the mistake that if chicken (which in the mind of the masses is meat) was being eaten with milk, that meant other meats, as long as they aren't the actual kid in its biological mother's milk, are also permitted with milk.

Obviously this is incorrect; you may not eat any "beef" (or lamb etc.) in any (animal's) milk.

This is a troublesome thought. People could innocently make the mistake and break a Torah law. The sages, who were commanded by the Torah to protect its laws, issued a decree that since people consider chicken to be a form of meat, it is in the category of meat and may not be eaten with dairy.

This confusion never applied to fish and fish is still not classified as meat. (There are other issues with fish, both regarding fish and milk and fish and meat. See each link respectively).



  • 1. We are just using chicken as a common example. However, the same applies to all poultry.
  • 2. Exodus 23:19, 34:26 and Deuteronomy 14:21
  • 3. See Talmud tractate Chullin 113a (and subsequent pages). Also see Rashi on above verses.
  • 4. The difference is that chicken is considered a form of meat - but it is excluded because its mother doesn't give milk; whereas fish is not even considered a form of meat in the Torah.


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Make no Mistake

Posted by: Anonymous on Mar 06, 2008

Would I be allowed to eat chicken and diary together if I do it in the privacy of my own home because there is no one else there to confuse it with meat and milk or does the law always apply?

Editor's Comment

Once something like that becomes forbidden, it is always forbidden, even in the privacy of your own home. The reasons for this are many, and quite logical.

Here are some practical problems: a) you get use to eating chicken and milk at home, you are bound to "slip" and do so out of your home, at least from time to time. b) someone walks into your home, expectedly or unexpectedly, and sees you eating chicken and milk. c) over time, say 20 years, you may also forget why chicken is allowed and come to make the same mistake that you thought only others were susceptible to.

Those are just some examples of the rational behind this, but at the end of the day, once it has been declared forbidden, it is always forbidden. Thus for all practical purposes chicken is simply meat, period.

Torah is G–d’s teaching to man. In general terms, we refer to the Five Books of Moses as “The Torah.” But in truth, all Jewish beliefs and laws are part of the Torah.